Thursday, December 22, 2005

Dear Madam,

Thank you for your nice letter of appreciation and surely your appreciation will help me in my further works.

Your doubts, let me try to clear.

1. Page no. 241, that is, of course, general opinion of everyone that Swamy is Thirumal, Elango wrote like this and the great Alwars prayed and praised like this and who I am to think in other way.

I have in my preface explained that Elango had mentioned about Swamy with Shanku, Chakra as ‘NINDRA SENKAN MAAL’. That was the period of about 2nd century C.E. Swamy was in statue form (Archa Murthy) with no coverage, not even a shed to safeguard from rain or sun (this is what Silappathi Kaaram mentioned very clearly). Please note that there was no temple structure for Venkatava during 2nd C.E. Temple construction must have started during 4th or 5th century at Tirumala. The Mudalaazhwaars were praising the ‘deity’ only but not the temple like Kulasekhara Azhwar of 8th or 9th century (who sang “Sediyaaya ValvinaigaL…..nin Koyilin vasal……padiyaaikidandhu). Even Periaazhwar & AandaaL did not sing about the temple but only on Thiruvenkata Malai and Swamy. Same Nammaazhwaar and Thirumangai too. Probably those days of Alwars, the temple had a small enclosure with small gopuram. Reaching Tiruvenkatava in Tirumalai due to steep and hard rough ways in the hill range was not that easy. Perhaps during Pallavaa’s ending regime, (8th and 9th century) temple structure must have been constructed. And from 10th century onwards, the history of Temple was available with TTD authorities and well known to outsiders and devotees.

2. Page No. 182, Paalai – In the early sangham period, Vada Venkatam was mentioned in several works like “Pattinap Paalai”, ‘Sirupanarruppadai’ Ettuthogai, especially one ‘Kannanaar’ sang on ‘Venkata Nedu Varai’ paadal (Agam : 85) was very interesting mentioning that northern tamilagam has a boundary of desert hills where elephants are dying due to non-availability of water.

Generally in sangham works vEnkatam was mentioned as‘vendhu pOgum Paalai’ and there were several quotes in Tamil sangha paadals. Even now if you see a small portion of hill range nearby Kaalahasti, those were looking like hot cakes of rocks. It looks like a desert hills only.

3. And as far as Kaali and KoRkai, we say on two counts. One is the temple wall has got simham and another is Durga was presiding Diety of Paalai. But as I said, the temple construction took place after identification of SWAMI as Thirumaal by Elango and Mudhalaazhwars. And moreover, since Swamy was in highest terrain, in those days anybody without the knowledge of outside world can construct any type of construction. Aagama system was not followed in those days of ‘Kalappira’s Anti-Brahmanism Rule’ in temple constructions. (even in Tamilnadu too and example was ‘Mylai Kapaali Temple’ which was constructed during 4th CE at Mylai Beach and later shifted in 17th CE to the present place with Aagama niyamams). Due to Lion image on the wall at Tirumala temple, some claims as Kaali temple and some due to hilly region, Arunagiri Naathar, the great poet of Tiruppugazh, sang the Lord as Muruga.

4. I believe a basic principle that GOD is one but has many forms as Nammazhwar quote ‘yaanum thaanaai ninRaanai…. As GOD is He and He became He, Shiva and Brahma to create the three worlds. The same principal is adapted for Thiruvenkatavan too. I have seen Him as ‘Thiruvenkatavan’ only and when I want to question myself who is He, I get confused. And when I treat him as Thiruvenkatavan only my confusion has vanished. That is what Ramanuja thought and sang the song of Nammazhwaar, Aaasiriyar thought and Kaalingan thought. But showing the Swamy as Thirumaal under compulsion to outside world was different and that will be again an entirely different story.

5. Margazhi month, in the earlier days comes during October – November (rainy season) and not December – January as per Mugavai Raghava Iyengar. This great astro-scientist counted the days, taking cue from ‘Aandal’s Thiruppavai Paadal ‘VeLLi Ezhendhu Vyaazhan Urangirru’ - this particular song was sung during November 7th or some thing (exact day I forgot but 1st or 2nd week of November only) of 885 C.E. The English system of calendar came to us only some four centuries back. Even ‘Paavai nonbu’ was said to be observed by young girls for the sake of invoking rain gods. If you want to know more details on our old system of kala nirnayam, please visit .

6. There was a historical evidence of Kaalingan in the stone inscriptions. But, even though he belonged to a direct lineage of the great Raja Raja Chola, he had lot of compulsions on getting the ‘throne’ as he was a child when his father was killed in a war and history said that all the four sons of ‘Rajendra Chola’ adored the throne one by one and there was hardly any chance for their sons except the last one ‘Athirajendra’ who died on account of ‘throat cancer’. Kaalingan was said to be born to the 2nd son of Rajendra Chola and history said that this second son was killed at the war taking place at Koppam. I have explained this in the book.

7. Ramanuja’s exile of 11 years period is surely a controversial one. Some says he was in ‘Melakota’ for twelve years and some says that he was in Ahobilam of around 12 years. But Vaduga Nambi’s Yathiraja Vaibhavam on Sri Ramanujar Avathaaram did not talk on time frame but said that on hearing that Krimikanta Cholan had passed away he felt happy and after completion of his work at Tirunarayanapuram (yathigiri) he has returned to Srirangam (part 100 to 104 explains Ramanuja’s exile account). Athirajendran did rule only brief period and he had relations with Jain Saalukya - Bilvana and Kulothunga was a secular – all are historically traced and proved. As per Sri Rangam ‘Koil Ozhugu’ Kulottungan did come to Sri Rangam along with Maaruti Aandaan and returned over all rights over Temple to Udaiyavar. Due to this only I could frame Maaruti Aandan as friend of Chola’s and Aasiriyar.

Finally last doubt on establishment of Lord’s Sthithi, I would like to state only one think that I could not have ended this story without HIS assignment. Whether proofs are there or not, Avan Avanthaan and beyond this frankly speaking I have no answer.

Hope your doubts, to certain extend, are clarified.

Thanks and regards

V. Dhivakar